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国际标准化组织ISO概况
发布日期:2016-01-29

国际标准化组织(英文:International Organization for Standardization,简称ISO,成立于1947年2月23日,是制作全世界工商业国际标准的各国国家标准机构代表的国际标准建立机构,总部设于瑞士日内瓦,成员包括162个会员国。该组织自我定义为非政府组织,官方语言是英语、法语和俄语。参加者包括各会员国的国家标准机构和主要企业。

ISO成员

ISO会员分布图。绿色是会员(members),黑色是非会员,黄色是通讯会员(correspondent members),红色是预定加入会员(subscriber members)。

中华人民共和国在1978年9月1日以中国标准化协会的名义参加ISO,并在1982年9月当选并连任理事国(1983年~1994年)。1985年和1989年,分别改由国家标准局和国家技术监督局参加。2001年起,在ISO代表中华人民共和国会籍的会员机构是国家标准化管理委员会。

香港和澳门均是ISO通讯成员(correspondent members)。

中华民国原是ISO创始国之一,但目前中华民国已不是ISO成员,但《中华民国国家标准》通常仍参考ISO标准。

ISO与负责电子设备标准的国际电工委员会密切合作。

ISO的国际标准以数字表示。例如,“ISO 11180:1993”的“11180”是标准号码,而“1993”是出版年份。

国际标准化组织的简称ISO来自于希腊语的单词isos,意为“相同”,并不是英语或法语名称的缩写

2013年09月21日中国标准化专家委员会委员、国际钢铁协会副主席张晓刚,日前当选国际标准化组织(ISO)主席,是ISO自1947年成立以来首由中国人任主席。ISO是国际经贸活动的重要规则。59岁的张晓刚,曾任鞍钢集团总经理,是中共十八届纪委委员。

因为中文不是ISO的官方语言,所以ISO标准没有正式中文名称


ISO是一个国际标准化组织,其成员由来自世界上100多个国家的国家标准化团体组成,代表中国参加ISO的国家机构是国家质量监督检验检疫总局。ISO与国际电工委员会(IEC)有密切的联系,中国参加IEC的国家机构也是国家质量监督检验检疫总局。ISO和IEC作为一个整体担负着制订全球协商一致的国际标准的任务,ISO和IEC都是非政府机构,它们制订的标准实质上是自愿性的,这就意味着这些标准必须是优秀的标准,它们会给工业和服务业带来收益,所以他们自觉使用这些标准。ISO和IEC不是联合国机构,但它们与联合国的许多专门机构保持技术联络关系。ISO和IEC有约1000个专业技术委员会和分委员会,各会员国以国家为单位参加这些技术委员会和分委员会的活动。ISO和IEC还有约3000个工作组,ISO、IEC每年制订和修订1000个国际标准。



标准的内容涉及广泛,从基础的紧固件、轴承各种原材料到半成品和成品,其技术领域涉及信息技术、交通运输、农业、保健和环境等。每个工作机构都有自己的工作计划,该计划列出需要制订的标准项目(试验方法、术语、规格、性能要求等)。

ISO的主要功能是为人们制订国际标准达成一致意见提供一种机制。其主要机构及运作规则都在一本名为ISO/IEC技术工作导则的文件中予以规定,其技术结构在ISO是有800个技术委员会和分委员会,它们各有一个主席和一个秘书处,秘书处是由各成员国分别担任,目前承担秘书国工作的成员团体有30个,各秘书处与位于日内瓦的ISO中央秘书处保持直接联系。

通过这些工作机构,ISO已经发布了17000多个国际标准,如ISO公制螺纹、ISO的A4纸张尺寸、ISO的集装箱系列(目前世界上95%的海运集装箱都符合ISO标准)、ISO的胶片速度代码、ISO的开放系统互联(OS2)系列(广泛用于信息技术领域)和有名的ISO9000质量管理系列标准。

此外,ISO还与450个国际和区域的组织在标准方面有联络关系,特别与国际电信联盟(ITU)有密切联系。在ISO/IEC系统之外的国际标准机构共有28个。每个机构都在某一领域制订一些国际标准,通常它们在联合国控制之下。一个典型的例子就是世界卫生组织(WHO)。ISO/IEC 制订的85%的国际标准,剩下的15%由这28个其他国际标准机构制订。


国际标准化活动最早开始于电子领域,于1906年成立了世界上最早的国际标准化机构——国际电工委员会(IEC)。其他技术领域的工作原先有成立于1926年的国家标准化协会的国际联盟(International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations,简称ISA)承担,重点在于机械工程方面。ISA的工作由于二次大战在1942年终止。1946年,来自25个国家的代表在伦敦召开会议,决定成立一个新的国际组织,其目的是促进国际间的合作和工业标准的统一。于是,ISO这一新组织于1947年2月23日正式成立,总部设在瑞士的日内瓦。ISO于1951年发布了第一个标准——工业长度测量用标准参考温度。


ISO宗旨是:在世界范围内促进标准化工作的发展,以利于国际物资交流和互助,并扩大常识、科学、技术和经济方面的合作。

ISO主要任务是:制定国际标准,协调世界范围内的标准化工作,与其他国际性组织合作研究有关标准化问题。


ISO组织机构如下:

合格评定委员会(CASCO)

消费者政策委员会(COPOLCO)

发展中国家事务委员会(DEVCO)

信息系统和服务委员会(INFCO)

特别咨询小组

ISO的组织结构

ISO的组织结构

技术管理局

技术委员会TC

理事会

中央秘书处

ISO全体大会


ISO的组织机构分为非常设机构和常设机构。ISO的最高权力机构是ISO全体大会(General Assembly),是ISO的非常设机构。1994年以前,全体大会每3年召开一次。全体大会召开时,所有ISO团体成员、通信成员、与ISO有联络关系的国际组织均派代表与会,每个成员有3个正式代表的席位,多于3位以的代表以观察员的身份与会;全体大会的规模大约200~260人。大会的主要议程包括年度报告中涉及的有关项目的活动情况、ISO的战略计划以及财政情况等。ISO中央秘书处承担全体大会、全体大会设立的4个政策制定委员会、理事会、技术管理局和通用标准化原理委员会的秘书处的工作。自1994年开始根据ISO新章程,ISO全体大会改为一年一次。

ISO的主要官员有5位,他们是:ISO主席(President);ISO副主席(政策)(Vice President,Policy),ISO副主席(技术)(Vice President,Technical Management);ISO司库(Treasurer);ISO秘书长(Secretary—General),所有主要官员由理事会任命,享有终身任期;ISO秘书长负责主持ISO的日常工作。


国际标准由技术委员会(TC)和分技术委员会(SC)经过六个阶段形成:

第一阶段:申请阶段;

第二阶段:预备阶段;

第三阶段:委员会阶段;

第四阶段:审查阶段;

第五阶段:批准阶段;

第六阶段:发布阶段。


截止2013年5月,ISO共有163个成员国[2]。

ISO Members by Country

Country A2 Code Country A3 Code Country Code No. Country Name (English) Standards Body ISO Status

AF AFG 004 Afghanistan ANSA Correspondent Member

AL ALB 008 Albania DPS Correspondent Member

DZ DZA 012 Algeria IANOR Member Body

AD AND 020 Andorra IRAM Member Body

AO AGO 024 Angola IANORQ Correspondent Member

AG ATG 028 Antigua & Barbuda ABBS Subscriber Member

AR ARG 032 Argentina IRAM Member Body

AM ARM 051 Armenia SARM Member Body

AU AUS 036 Australia SA Member Body

AT AUT 040 Austria ON Member Body

AZ AZE 031 Azerbaijan AZSTAND Member Body

BS BHS 044 Bahamas - [1]

BH BHR 048 Bahrain BMSD Member Body

BD BGD 050 Bangladesh BSTI Member Body

BB BRB 052 Barbados BNSI Member Body

BY BLR 112 Belarus BELST Member Body

BE BEL 056 Belgium NBN Member Body

BZ BLZ 084 Belize - [1]

BJ BEN 204 Benin CEBENOR Correspondent Member

BT BTN 064 Bhutan SQCA Correspondent Member

BO BOL 068 Bolivia IBNORCA Correspondent Member

BA BIH 070 Bosnia & Herzegovina BASMP Member Body

BW BWA 072 Botswana BOBS Member Body

BR BRA 076 Brazil ABNT Member Body

BN BRB 096 Brunei Darussalam CPRU Correspondent Member

BG BGR 100 Bulgaria BDS Member Body

BF BFA 854 Burkina Faso FASONORM Correspondent Member

BI BDI 108 Burundi BBN Subscriber Member

KH KHM 116 Cambodia ISC Subscriber Member

CM CMR 120 Cameroon CDNQ Correspondent Member

CA CAN 124 Canada SCC Member Body

CV CPV 132 Cape Verde - [1]

CF CAF 140 Central African Republic - [1]

TD TCD 148 Chad - [1]

CL CHL 52 Chile INN Member Body

CN CHN 156 China SAC Member Body

CO COL 170 Colombia ICONTEC Member Body

KM COM 174 Comoros - [1]

CG COG 178 Congo, Republic of the - [1]

CD(ZR) COD 180 Congo, Democratic Republic of the (Zaire) OCC Member Body

CR CRI 188 Costa Rica INTECO Member Body

CI CIV 384 C?te d'Ivoire CODINORM Member Body

HR HRV 191 Croatia HZN Member Body

CU CUB 192 Cuba NC Member Body

CY CYP 196 Cyprus CYS Member Body

CZ CZE 203 Czech Republic CNI Member Body

DK DNK 208 Denmark DS Member Body

DJ DJI 262 Djibouti - [1]

DM DMA 212 Dominica DBOS Subscriber Member

DO DOM 214 Dominican Republic DIGINOR Correspondent Member

EC ECU 218 Ecuador INEN Member Body

EG EGY 818 Egypt EOS Member Body

SV SLV 222 El Salvador CONACYT Correspondent Member

GQ GNQ 226 Equatorial Guinea - [1]

ER ERI 232 Eritrea ESI Correspondent Member

EE EST 233 Estonia EVS Correspondent Member

ET ETH 231 Ethiopia QSAE Member Body

FJ FJI 242 Fiji FTSQCO Member Body

FI FIN 246 Finland SFS Member Body

FR FRA 250 France AFNOR Member Body

GA GAB 266 Gabon CNTT Correspondent Member

GM GMB 270 Gambia, The - [1]

GE GEO 268 Georgia GEOSTM Correspondent Member

DE DEU 276 Germany DIN Member Body

GH GHA 288 Ghana GSB Member Body

GR GRC 300 Greece ELOT Member Body

GD GRD 308 Grenada - [1]

GT GTM 320 Guatemala COGUANOR Correspondent Member

GN GIN 324 Guinea INNM Correspondent Member

GW GNB 624 Guinea-Bissau DSNPQ Correspondent Member

GY GUY 328 Guyana GNBS Subscriber Member

HT HTI 332 Haiti - [1]

HN HND 340 Honduras COHCIT Subscriber Member

HK HKG 344 Hong Kong, China ITCHKSAR Correspondent Member

HU HUN 348 Hungary MSZT Member Body

IS ISL 352 Iceland IST Member Body

IN IND 356 India BIS Member Body

ID IDN 360 Indonesia BSN Member Body

IR IRN 364 Iran, Islamic Republic of ISIRTI Member Body

IQ IRW 368 Iraq COSQC Member Body

IE IRL 372 Ireland NSAI Member Body

IL ISR 376 Israel SII Member Body

IT ITA 380 Italy UNI Member Body

JM JAM 388 Jamaica JBS Member Body

JP JPN 392 Japan JISC Member Body

JO JOR 400 Jordan JISM Member Body

KZ KAZ 398 Kazakhstan KAZMEMST Member Body

KE KEN 404 Kenya KEBS Member Body

KI KIR 296 Kiribati - [1]

KP PRK 408 Korea, Democratic People's Republic CSK Member Body

KR KOR 410 Korea, Republic of KATS Member Body

KW KWT 414 Kuwait KOWSMD Member Body

KG KGZ 417 Kyrgyzstan KYRGYZST Correspondent Member

LA LAO 418 Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic) DISM Subscriber Member

LV LVA 428 Latvia LVS Correspondent Member

LB LBN 422 Lebanon LIBNOR Member Body

LS LSO 426 Lesotho LSQAS Subscriber Member

LR LBR 430 Liberia - [1]

LY LBY 434 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya LNCSM Member Body

LI LIE 438 Liechtenstein - [1]

LT LTU 440 Lithuania LST Correspondent Member

LU LUX 442 Luxembourg SEE Member Body

MO MAC 446 Macau (Macau China) CPTTM Correspondent Member

MK MKD 807 Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of ISRM Member Body

MG MDG 450 Madagascar BNM Correspondent Member

MW MWI 454 Malawi MBS Correspondent Member

MY MYS 458 Malaysia DSM Member Body

MV MDV 462 Maldives - [1]

ML MLI 466 Mali MLIDNI Correspondent Member

MT MLT 470 Malta MSA Member Body

MH MHL 584 Marshall Islands - [1]

MR MRT 478 Mauritania - [1]

MU MUS 480 Mauritius MSB Member Body

MX MEX 484 Mexico DGN Member Body

FM FSM 583 Micronesia, Federated States Of - [1]

MD MDA 498 Moldova, Republic of MOLDST Correspondent Member

MC MCO 492 Monaco - [1]

MN MNG 496 Mongolia MASM Member Body

(YS)[2] - - Montenegro ISME Correspondent Member

MA MAR 504 Morocco SNIMA Member Body

MZ MOZ 508 Mozambique INNOQ Correspondent Member

MM MMR 104 Myanmar MSTRD Correspondent Member

NA NAM 516 Namibia NSIQO Correspondent Member

NR NRU 520 Nauru - [1]

NP NPL 524 Nepal NBSM Correspondent Member

NL NLD 528 The Netherlands NEN Member Body

NZ NZL 554 New Zealand SNZ Member Body

NI NIC 558 Nicaragua DTNM Correspondent Member

NE NER 562 Niger DNQM Correspondent Member

NG NGA 566 Nigeria SON Member Body

NO NOR 578 Norway SN Member Body

OM OMN 512 Oman DGSM Member Body

PK PAK 586 Pakistan PSQCA Member Body

PW PLW 585 Palau - [1]

PS PSE 275 Palestinian State[3] PSI Correspondent Member

PA PAN 591 Panama COPANIT Member Body

PG PNG 598 Papua New Guinea NISIT Correspondent Member

PY PRY 600 Paraguay INTN Correspondent Member

PE PER 604 Peru INDECOPI Member Body

PH PHL 608 The Philippines BPS Member Body

PL POL 616 Poland PKN Member Body

PT PRT 620 Portugal IPQ Member Body

QA QAT 634 Qatar QS Member Body

RO ROU 642 Romania ASRO Member Body

RU RUS 643 Russian Federation GOST R Member Body

RW RWA 646 Rwanda RBS Correspondent Member

KN KNA 659 St. Kitts & Nevis - [1]

LC LCA 662 St. Lucia SLBS Member Body

VC VCT 670 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines SVGBS Subscriber Member

WS WSM 882 Samoa - [1]

SM SMR 674 San Marino - [1]

ST STP 678 S?o Tomé & Príncipe - [1]

SA SAU 682 Saudi Arabia SASO Member Body

SN SEN 686 Senegal ASN Correspondent Member

CS SCG 891 Serbia ISS Member Body

SC SYC 690 Seychelles SBS Correspondent Member

SL SLE 694 Sierra Leone - [1]

SG SGP 702 Singapore SPRING SG Member Body

SK SVK 703 Slovakia SUTN Member Body

SI SVN 705 Slovenia SIST Member Body

SB SLB 090 Solomon Islands - [1]

SO SOM 706 Somalia - [1]

ZA ZAF 710 South Africa SABS Member Body

ES ESP 724 Spain AENOR [1]. Member Body

LK LKA 144 Sri Lanka SLSI Member Body

SD SDN 736 Sudan SSMO Member Body

SR SUR 740 Suriname SSB Subscriber member

SZ SWZ 748 Swaziland SQAS Correspondent Member

SE SWE 752 Sweden SIS Member Body

CH CHE 756 Switzerland SNV Member Body

SY SYR 760 Syrian Arab Republic SASMO Member Body

TW TWN 158 Taiwan - [1]

TJ TJK 762 Tajikistan TJKSTN Correspondent Member

TZ TZA 834 Tanzania, United Republic of TBS Member Body

TH THA 764 Thailand TISI Member Body

TL(TP) TLS 206 Timor Leste, Democratic Republic of (East Timor) - [1]

TG TGO 768 Togo CSN Correspondent Member

TO TON 776 Tonga - [1]

TT TTO 780 Trinidad & Tobago TTBS Member Body

TN TUN 788 Tunisia INNORPI Member Body

TR TUR 792 Turkey TSE Member Body

TM TKM 795 Turkmenistan MSST Correspondent Member

TV TUV 798 Tuvalu - [1]

UG UGA 800 Uganda UNBS Correspondent Member

UA UKR 804 Ukraine DSSU Member Body

AE ARE 784 United Arab Emirates ESMA Member Body

UK GBR 826 United Kingdom (Great Britain) BSI Member Body [4][5]

US USA 840 United States ANSI Member Body

UY URY 858 Uruguay UNIT Member Body

UZ UZB 860 Uzbekistan UZSTANDARD Member Body

VU VUT 548 Vanuatu - [1]

VA VAT 336 Vatican City (Holy See) - [1]

VE VEN 862 Venezuela FONDONORMA Member Body

VN VNM 704 Vietnam TCVN Member Body

EH ESH 732 Western Sahara - [1]

YE YEM 887 Yemen YSMO Correspondent Member

ZM ZMB 894 Zambia ZABS Correspondent Member

ZW ZWE 816 Zimbabwe SAZ Member Body

1.Does not have representation in ISO under any membership class as of January 2008.

2.Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia were part of Former Yugoslavia. Although it is a country, ISO 3166-1993 (E) does not separately list Montenegro.

3.Although not technically a Country, the Palestinian State has representation in ISO as if it was.

4.Although technically the official country name for the 'UK' is the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland' it is referred to as 'Great Britain' by the ISO.

5.Although technically they are Countries, England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are not listed separately from Great Britain in ISO 3166-1993 (E) and do not have their own ISO representation.


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